Area: 3.3 million sq. km
Location: The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south. India occupies a major portion of the South Asian subcontinent.
Geographic Coordinates: Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68°7' and 97°25' longitudes east.
Indian Standard Time: GMT + 05:30
Telephone Country Code: +91
Capital: New Delhi
Border Countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka in the South is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
Climate: The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons - winter (December-February), (ii) summer (March-June), (iii) south-west monsoon season (June-September), and (iv) post monsoon season (October- November).
Terrain: The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganges and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.
Natural Resources: Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc.
Country Name: Republic of India; Bharatiya Ganarajya
Government Type: Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.
Administrative Divisions : 29 States and 7 Union Territories.
Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950. The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the country.
Executive Branch: The President of India is the Head of State, while the Prime Minister is the Head of the Government supported by the Council of Ministers/Cabinet.
Legislative Branch: The Federal Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of Parliament.
Judicial Branch: The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.
26 January (Republic Day)
15 August (Independence Day)
2 October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday)
Population (Census 2011): 1210.19 million.
Males: 623.7 million.
Females: 586.5 million.
Birth Rate: 20.6 births/1000 population (2012 est.)
Death Rate: 7.43/1000 population (2012 est.)
Infant Mortality Rate: 46.07 deaths/1000 live births (2012 est.)
Density of Population (Census 2011): 382 Persons (per square kilometer)
Expectation of Life: 67.14 years
Ethnic Groups: All the five major racial types - Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India.
Religions: According to the 2001 census, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others.
Languages: There are 22 different languages that have been recognised by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. English has by law been designated the language for official purposes. Literacy Rate (Census 2011): 74.04 %
Gross Domestic Product during 2011-12 [at current prices]: US$ 1680.69 billion (Rs 82.8 trillion)
Gross Domestic Product during 2011-12 [at constant (2004-05) prices]: US$ 1060.42 billion (Rs 52.2 trillion)
Gross Domestic Product growth rate during 2011-12: 6.9 %
Per capita income during 2011-12 [at current prices]: US$ 1237.13 (Rs. 60972)
Per capita income during 2011-12 [at constant (2004-05) prices]: US$ 771.72 (Rs 38005)
Forex Reserves (for the week ended February 24, 2012): US$ 296.05 billion
Exports (April 2011-January 2012): US$ 242.79 billion
Imports (April 2011-January 2012): US$ 391.46 billion
Amount of FDI inflows (from April 2011 to December 2011): US$ 24.19 billion
Cumulative amount of FDI equity inflows (from April 2000 to December 2011): US$ 157.97 billion
Sectors attracting highest FDI inflows: Services Sector (20 %), Telecommunications (8 %), Computer Software & Hardware (7 %), Housing & Real Estate (7 %), Construction Activities (Including Roads & Highways) (6 %),Drugs & Pharmaceuticals (6 %) , Power (4 %), Automobile Industry (4 %),Metallurgical Industries (4 %), Petroleum & Natural Gas (2 %).
Top Investing Countries: Mauritius (40 %), Singapore (10 %), Japan (8 %), U.S.A (7 %), U.K (6 %), Netherlands (4 %), Cyprus (4 %), Germany (3 %), France (2 %), U.A.E (1 %).